New IFPRI ESSP Brochure 2014

The Ethiopia Strategy Support Program (ESSP) is a collaborative program undertaken by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI). Brochure_ESSP_2014_final_Page_1

The new IFPRI ESSP Brochure 2014 summerizes:

  • The Program Objectives
  • Strategic Policy Research Areas
  • Capacity Strengthening and Outreach
  • National Advisory committee
  • Collaboration and Partnerships

Download the PDF (336KB)

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Efficiency and productivity differential effects of land certification program in Ethiopia

ESSP Working Paper 64 "Efficiency and productivity differential effects of land certification program in Ethiopia" by Hagos, Hosaena Ghebru and Holden, Stein

Abstract: Although theory predicts that better property rights to land can increase land productivity through tenure security effects (investment effects) and through more efficient input use due to enhanced tradability of the land (factor intensity effect), empirical studies on the size and magnitude of these effects are very scarce. Taking advantage of a unique quasi-experi-mental survey design, this study analyzes the productivity impacts of the Ethiopian land certification program by identify-ing how the investment effects (technological gains) would measure up against the benefits from any improvements in input use intensity (technical efficiency). For this purpose, we adopted a data envelopment analysis–based Malmquist-type productivity index to decompose productivity differences into (1) within-group farm efficiency differences, reflecting the technical efficiency effect, and (2) differences in the group production frontier, reflecting the long-term investment (technological) effects. The results show that farms without a land use certificate are, on aggregate, less productive than those with formalized use rights. We found no evidence to suggest this productivity difference is due to inferior technical efficiency. Rather, the reason is down to technological advantages, or a favorable investment effect, from which farm plots with a land use certificate benefit when evaluated against farms not included in the certification program. The low level of within-group efficiency of farms in each group reinforces the argument that certification programs need to be ac-companied by complementary measures such as an improved financial and legal institutional framework in order to achieve the promised effects. Download the pdf (1.6 MB).

Find more ESSP Working Papers on the Publication page.

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ESSP Brochure 2014

Download the new ESSP Brochure 2014 and read about ESSP's major activites, research themes, and capacity building activities for 2014, as well as ESSP's highlights of 2013.

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ESSP Newsletter January – March 2014

The Ethiopia Strategy Support Program would like to present its quarterly newsletter for the months January - March 2014.
The Newsletter covers:

  • Upcoming eventsNewsletter Jan-Mar2014
    • IFPRI 2020 Conference on “Building Resilience for Food and Nutrition Security”. May 15-17, 2014. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    • Workshop on “Agricultural price policy in the context of rapid growth in Ethiopia”. June 17, 2014. In collaboration with JMA/AMD and EDRI.
  • List of recent ESSP publications:
    • Cows, missing milk markets and nutrition in rural Ethiopia. John Hoddinott, Derek Headey, and Mekdim Dereje. 2014. ESSP Working Paper 63
    • Determinants and Impact of Sustainable Land and Watershed Management Investments: A Systems Evaluation in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia. Emily Schmidt, Paul Chinowsky, Sherman Robinson and Ken Strzepek. 2014. ESSP Working Paper 62.
    • Hydrological modeling of sustainable land management interventions in the Mizewa watershed of the Blue Nile Basin. Emily Schmidt and Birhanu Zemadim. 2014. ESSP Working Paper 61
  • Highlights of presentations in January - March 2014
  • Policy Related Analysis 'Cows, missing milk markets and nutrition in rural Ethiopia'
  • and more
    Download the PDF (440KB)

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2013 Global Food Policy Report (GFPR)

viewerThis 2013 Global Food Policy Report is the third in an annual series that provides an in-depth look at major food policy developments and events. Initiated in response to resurgent interest in food and nutrition security, the series offers a yearly overview of the food policy developments that have contributed to or hindered progress in achieving food and nutrition security. It reviews what happened in food policy and why, examines key challenges and opportunities, shares new evidence and knowledge, and highlights emerging issues.

For Africa as a whole, progress has not been enough to achieve CAADP targets of both a 10Global_Food_Policy_Report_Ch8_tn percent budget share and 6 percent annual growth for agriculture. Agricultural spending grew steadily, however, averaging an annual rate of 7.4 percent from 2003 to 2010, with a total of 13 countries having met or surpassed the budget target in any single year. Over the same period, Africa’s average annual agricultural growth rate stood at 3.8 percent, a marked improvement but still well below the 6 percent target. However, a few countries—Angola, Ethiopia, Guinea, Mozambique, Nigeria, and Rwanda – have exceeded the growth target since 2003. The development community has also responded positively; the share of agriculture in total official development assistance grew at an average annual rate of 10.5 percent during 2003-2010. Improvements in agricultural expenditures and growth have translated into improvements in overall economic growth and reductions in poverty and undernourishment. For Africa as a whole, gross domestic product (GDP) and GDP per capita grew at an impressive average annual rate of 5.0 percent and 2.3 percent, respectively, during 2003-2012. Meanwhile, the prevalence of under-nourishment fell slightly from 26.7 percent in 2003 to 24.3 percent in 2010, while the proportion of people living below the US$1.25 a day poverty line fell from 55.7 percent in 2002 to 48.5 percent in 2010. The absolute number of poor has continued to increase, however, rising from 390.2 million in 2002 to 413.7 million in 2010.

Interactive version: http://www.ifpri.org/gfpr/2013
Report: http://www.ifpri.org/publication/2013-global-food-policy-report-overview

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Determinants and Impact of Sustainable Land and Watershed Management Investments: A Systems Evaluation in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

ESSP Working Paper 62 "Determinants and Impact of Sustainable Land and Watershed Management Investments: A Systems Evaluation in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia" by Emily Schmidt, Paul Chinowsky,  Sherman Robinson and Ken Strzepek.

Abstract: Ongoing debate over water resource management in the Nile basin and continuing land degradation in agricultural areas of Ethiopia suggest a need for efficient mechanisms to improve agricultural output in the Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia. Numerous econometric and hydrological models have been developed to assess the effects of sustainable land and watershed management (SLWM) investments, however these models fail to address the trade-offs faced by rural farmers in maintaining such structures. This study combines household survey data that evaluates the economic determinants of program sustainability with a detailed hydrological model that explores location specific effects of SLWM structures.

Household survey analysis suggests that households that invested in SLWM infrastructure on their agricultural plots between 1992 and 2002 and subsequently maintained those structures had a 24 percent higher value of production in 2010 than farming households that did not make such SLWM investments. The location specific hydrological model analysis suggests that terraces on middle and steep slope areas have the largest benefit in terms of decreased runoff and sediment and increased agricultural yields. Utilizing the results from the econometric and hydrological model, a systems model is constructed to analyze investment packages. Results suggest that the benefit of implementing only terracing on steep and mid-slope terrain does not outweigh the cost of foregone off-farm labor opportunities nor compensate for a fall in the price of agricultural output (due to increased supply). However, more comprehensive investments (such as increased fertilizer use with SLWM) show economically significant increases in household income, suggesting that a packaged investment approach is needed to reap welfare benefits from investments in SLWM infrastructure at farm level. Download the pdf (1MB).

Find more ESSP Working Papers on the Publication page.

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Cows, missing milk markets and nutrition in rural Ethiopia

ESSP Working Paper 63 "Cows, missing milk markets and nutrition in rural Ethiopia" by Hoddinott, John F., Headey, Derek and Dereje, Mekdim.

Abstract: In rural economies encumbered by significant market imperfections, farming decisions may partly be motivated by nutritional considerations, in addition to income and risk factors. These imperfections create the potential for farm assets to have direct dietary impacts on nutrition in addition to any indirect effects via income. We test this hypothesis for the dairy sector in rural Ethiopia, a context in which markets are very thin, own-consumption shares are very high, and milk is an important source of animal-based proteins and micronutrients for young children. We find that cow ownership raises children’s milk consumption, increases linear growth, and reduces stunting in children by seven to nine percentage points. However, we also find that the direct nutritional impacts of household cow ownership are less important where there is good access to local markets, suggesting that market development can substitute for household cow ownership.  Download the pdf (994.8KB).

Find more ESSP Working Papers on the Publication page.

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Hydrological modeling of sustainable land management interventions in the Mizewa watershed of the Blue Nile Basin

ESSP Working Paper 61. "Hydrological modeling of sustainable land management interventions in the Mizewa watershed of the Blue Nile Basin" by Emily Schmidt and Birhanu Zemadim.

Abstract: According to the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), the Blue Nile basin is one of the least planned and managed sub-basins of the Nile (IWMI, 2008). Previous studies have examined the impact of investments in sustainable land and watershed management (SLWM) in the Blue Nile basin derived implicitly from economic analyses (Schmidt and Tadesse 2012; Pender and Gebremedhin 2006; Holden et al. 2009; Kassie et al. 2007). However, further examination using a hydrological model that takes into account biophysical differences in terrain, investment choice and magnitude (i.e. terraces vs. bunds implemented on only steep terrain vs. middle and steep terrain) within the watershed will provide greater insight as to how specific investments improve hydrological processes, and their explicit impact on agricultural productivity.

This analysis utilizes recent hydrological and meteorological data collected from the Mizewa watershed in order to better understand the physical impact of SLWM investments. The effectiveness of the simulated conservation practices (terraces, bunds, and residue management) are evaluated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model taking into account investment decisions on different terrain types. Simulations include: 1) terracing on steep hillsides (slopes greater than 20 degrees); 2) terracing on mid-range and steep hillsides (slopes greater than 5 degrees); 3) a mix of terracing and bunds on varying slope gradients; 4) residue management on all agricultural fields; and 5) a mix of terraces and residue management on steep and mid-range terrain where a majority of agricultural activity takes place. Simulated conservation practices are evaluated at the outlet of the Mizewa watershed by comparing model simulations that take into account the limited investments that currently exist (status quo) with simulations of increased terracing and residue management activities within the watershed.

Results suggest that the benefits of residue management practices were more important for less steep areas; while a mixed strategy of terracing on steep slopes and residue management on flat and middle slopes dramatically decreased surface runoff and erosion. A comprehensive investment of terraces and bunds throughout the watershed landscape provides the greatest reduction in surface flow and erosion; however, the type and amount of investment in SLWM have different implications with respect to labor input and utilization of agricultural land. It is important to note that although simulations suggest that a landscape-wide approach reaps the greatest long-term benefits, it is important to understand the costs of such an investment. Download the PDF

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East African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis

Agriculture is essential to the economies of East African countries. Climate change, with its effects on temperature and precipitation, threatens this important economic activity.

How to foster agricultural development and food security in East Africa as the effects of climate change become more serious is the subject of the study East African Agriculture and Climate Change: A Comprehensive Analysis. The authors develop several weather-based scenarios for how climate change might affect countries in the region between now and 2050.

National contributors from Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda review the scenario results for their countries and propose a variety of policies to counter the effects of climate change on agriculture and food security. These policies include greater investment in agricultural research and extension, equitable access to land and inputs such as seeds and fertilizer, expanded irrigation, and improved infrastructure. Read more at IFPRI's blog where this article was originally published.

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Conference on “Towards what works in rural development in Ethiopia: Evidence on the impact of investments and policies”

The Ethiopia Strategy Support Program organized a day-long conference on “Towards what works in rural development in Ethiopia: Evidence on the impact of investments and policies” on Friday December 13th . The conference marked the end of the second phase of the Ethiopian Strategy Support Program, supported by USAID, DFID, and CIDA (now DFATD). The purpose of the conference was to present updated knowledge on impacts of investments in rural areas in Ethiopia, mostly based on primary data gathered from a large number of rural households. The conference was attended by almost 90 people from different sectors.IMG_3661

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